John Jewel's "Challenge" to Rome (2)

We need to make a distinction between the various forms of debate that historians classify as "polemical theology." Anti-Catholic preaching at St. Paul's Cross was something different because it addressed a lay audience untrained in the theological details of the question at issue. The strategy was to attack the character or the ethos of the opposition. Aristotle wrote that the speaker’s ethos was one of the three forms of persuasion (along with pathos, the compassion of the speaker and logos, the care in which he uses content and structure to communicate clearly). If an opponent is shown to speak misleadingly, then their case is overthrown without discussing it in detail. Jewel used ethos effectively to persuade his hearers to be suspicious of the Roman Catholic argument because of man's sinfulness and rebellion against God; there is an inevitable corruption of divine worship as God commanded. Jewel’s opponents were examples of this continuing tendency to idolatry. He then uses the early Church Fathers as examples of the right use of Scripture and as men of godliness that preserved worship as Christ commanded.

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from Meet the Puritans


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